代词“他”的篇章回指功能眼动实验小型讨论会纪要

代词“他”的篇章回指功能眼动实验 介绍
2010年6月19日下午,在北京大学汉语语言学研究中心会议室召开了关于代词“他”的篇章回指功能眼动实验的小型讨论会。此次讨论会主要由北大中文系语言学及应用语言学专业07级博士生李榕同学介绍在荷兰乌特勒支大学(Utrecht University)短期交流的学习成果。会上,李榕同学介绍了对方大学的研究团队,眼动(eye-tracking)的实验设计以及代词“他”的篇章回指功能的眼动实验成果。会议由王洪君老师主持,与会者包括:北大心理系周晓林老师,中文系王超贤老师,汪锋老师,乌特勒支大学语音学博士陈傲以及语言学、心理学专业的多名同学。
眼动实验是一种利用新型的技术(眼动仪)追踪被试的眼球运动判断其认知情况的实验设计,在语言学、心理学、广告设计以及交通等多个领域有广泛的用途。李榕同学介绍了Eyelink和Tobii两种眼动仪的优劣以及使用方法。她主要介绍了三个实验,实验1、2都是关于代词“他”的回指。被试是47名中国大学生。实验1有160个句子,分为4个条件。采用2*2的实验设计,1是话题连贯并且使用代词,2是话题连贯并且使用零形回指,3是话题转换并且使用代词,4是话题转换并且使用零形回指。
1/王建国在大厅看见了李莎, 他笑着和她打了声招呼。
2/王建国在大厅看见了李莎, ( )笑着和她打了声招呼。
3/王建国在大厅看见了李莎, 她笑着和他打了声招呼。
4/王建国在大厅看见了李莎, ( )笑着和他打了声招呼。
相关的英语研究都证明了话题转换时代词的阅读时间比话题连贯时长,名词回指比代词回指的阅读时间长(repeated name penalty)。实验假设是:在语境偏爱零形回指的情况下,使用代词会减慢阅读时间。(overt pronoun penalty)实验结果与假设一致。在动词(“笑着”)即紧跟代词或零形回指的区域发现了显著差异,2/4比1/3读得快。在之后的代词区域“和她/他”发现了回指形式和衔接方式的相互作用。在句尾“招呼”发现了和英语等很多西方语言一致的话题连贯快于话题转换的显著差异。实验2采用相同的设计,不同之处在于语篇本身不偏爱代词,而是偏爱零形回指。结果与实验1相反,发现在“给/要零花钱”的区域有代词的句子比零形回指阅读速度快。
1/妈妈亲了女儿一下,在她给零花钱的时候。
2/妈妈亲了女儿一下,在( )给零花钱的时候。
3/妈妈亲了女儿一下,在她要零花钱的时候。
4/妈妈亲了女儿一下,在( )要零花钱的时候。
前两个实验都证明了读者对回指形式的可及性accessibility反应灵敏,语境偏爱的回指形式可以帮助阅读,反之,不偏爱的回指形式会减慢阅读时间,造成困难。
实验3考察了连词在阅读中的作用。很多英语实验已经证明合适的连词对阅读者有帮助。这个实验证实了汉语连词和英语连词的作用相似,并且发现连词之后区域的阅读时间排序为:语境偏爱的连词<没有连词<其他不偏爱的连词。即读者对连词和语境的关系反应灵敏。语境偏爱的连词可以帮助阅读,反之,不符合的连词会减慢阅读时间。合适的连词本身能帮助读者组织信息,更好地阅读。实验3采用1*4的实验设计,1 causal-2 temporal-3 additive-4 implicit。
1/陈兰高考得了全县第一名,所以请了很多亲戚朋友来家里吃饭。
2/陈兰高考得了全县第一名,然后请了很多亲戚朋友来家里吃饭。
3/陈兰高考得了全县第一名,并且请了很多亲戚朋友来家里吃饭。
4/陈兰高考得了全县第一名,()请了很多亲戚朋友来家里吃饭。
实验结果是在连词或者零形回指的下一个区域,发现了1<4<3<2的显著结果。
针对李榕同学的报告,与会的老师同学都从不同的角度发表了自己的看法并展开了热烈的讨论。
周晓林老师认为实验1设计合理,结果清楚,但是要注意对读者的认知状态提出一定的解释。实验2的材料不符合汉语的习惯,应该加以修改。会上,乌特勒支大学的陈傲同学还介绍了乌特勒支大学语言学系的相关设置以及语音学方面的部分研究成果。(李榕 文)
Referential coherence in Mandarin discourse:
The processing of zero-anaphors vs. pronouns
Rong Li , Pim Mak & Ted Sanders
Peking University, Utrecht University
A crucial characteristic of discourse is that it shows referential coherence. When interpreting a discourse like (1), language users have to understand that “He” refers to John. Several experimental studies of pronoun resolution in English show that reading times are faster when the pronoun refers to the subject of the previous sentence. For example, in (1), the reading time of “he” is faster than that of “she”. (1) John saw Mary in the lobby. He/she smiled and say hello.
Because English speakers prefer the discourse to continue with the subject of the previous sentence, processing studies show a slow down in the shift condition, the sentence with she, in (1). In Mandarin Chinese, however, a zero is preferred when the second sentence continues with the subject in sentences like (1). Hence, reading a pronoun might lead to a processing delay.Yet, Yang et al (2003), found no effects of the overt pronoun in a self-paced reading experiment,. Meridor (2006) found similar results in Hebrew. On the other hand, Carminati (2002) and Sorace & Filliaci (2006) in an off-line study found that respondents preferred a subject over an object antecedent for the overt pronoun.
In order to shed more light on this issue, we performed two eye-tracking experiments to investigate on-line how Chinese readers deal with the pronoun and zero. Both experiments are done in 2*2 design. There was either a Continue relation (2) or a Shift relation (3) between the two sentences. Within these conditions either a pronoun or a zero was used. The hypothesis was that the overt pronoun would slow down the reading time because it is not preferred.
(2) 王建国在大厅看见了李莎, 他/( )笑着和她打了声招呼。
John saw Mary in the lobby, He/( ) smiled and said hello to her. [Continue Pronoun\zero]
(3) 王建国在大厅看见了李莎, 她/( )笑着和他打了声招呼。
John saw Mary in the lobby, She/( ) smiled and said hello to him. [Shift Pronoun\zero]
45 Chinese students participated in both experiments. The results were consistent with our hypothesis: using a pronoun led to a delay at the verb. There was no effects of overt pronouns in continue and shift conditions. In region 5 (to her/him), there was an interaction of Relation and pronoun condition: The shift condition only led to a delay in the zero condition. Hence, the overt pronoun initially slowed the reader down, but it helped the reader in the shift condition. In Experiment 2 we used the same manipulations, but in a position where a zero is unnatural (see 4).
(4) 妈妈亲了女儿一下,在她\( )给\要零花钱的时候。
The mother kissed the ?her?daughter, While she\ ( ) is giving\asking for pocket money.
In this experiment we found the opposite result: The overt pronoun led to faster reading times: it helps the reader to find the actual referent and the zero slows the reader down. In sum, the results show that the readers are sensitive to how the expression types fitted in the context. The pronoun slows the reader down when a zero is expected on the basis of the context, and speeds them up when a zero is not expected. We will discuss the results in relation to leading theories of referential coherence, such as accessibility (Ariel, 2001) and Centering Theory (Arnold et al.)
Key Words: processing; pronouns; zero, discourse; Chinese
First discussed on 10th,June, 2010 in Center for Chinese Linguistics PKU, Thank you for the advice from Professor Zhou and my supervisor Wang. They argued that exp2 is not nature for Chinese readers. I agree and I will do some off-line test to fix.


发布者:hamburger

发布时间:2010-6-17 22:54:56

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