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标题 作者 关键词 领域 辑号 下载
古汉语假设义类词辨析 龚波 假设 虚词 误释 古汉、语法、语义 46
稿件标题古汉语假设义类词辨析
英文标题Discriminating against Hypothetical-meaning Words in Classical Chinese
作者姓名龚波
作者单位四川外语学院中文系
领域古汉、语法、语义
关键词假设 虚词 误释
中文摘要
前人归入假设义类词的一些词语其实并不能表示假设关系,把它们归入假设义类词是一种误释,是把构式的语义强加到了虚词身上。通过对这些被误释词语的辨析,可以深化我们对假设句的语义和句法特征及假设范畴与其他语义范畴之间关系的认识。
英文摘要
Some words that have been regarded as words with hypothetical-meaning by predecessors actually can not indicate hypothetical relationship. It is a misinterpretation to place them in words with hypothetical-meaning. The meaning of the construction has been imposed upon the function words. By discriminating against those words, we can deepen our understanding both on the semantic and grammatical features of hypothetical category and its relationship with other semantic categories.
字数15446
高名凯学术精神的恒久价值与现实意义 刘丹青 高名凯 语言学 学术精神 恒久价值 现实意义 理论、综合 45
稿件标题高名凯学术精神的恒久价值与现实意义
英文标题Long-lasting Value and Realistic Significance of Gao Mingkai’s Academic Spirit
作者姓名刘丹青
作者单位中国社科院
领域理论、综合
关键词高名凯 语言学 学术精神 恒久价值 现实意义
中文摘要
本文指出,高名凯教授的学术精神具有恒久的科学价值,而且对于当今中国语言学发展仍有很强的现实意义。文章以上个世纪世界语言发展的大势和中国语言学发展的历史与现实为背景,从四个方面论述高名凯学术精神的恒久价值与现实意义。一是高标准的科学性和系统性追求,二是与世界语言学发展同步的理论关怀,三是放眼人类语言的学术视角,四是善于吸收一切科学进步,勇于挑战任何权威成说。
英文摘要
The present essay points out that Professor Gao Mingkai’s academic spirit is of long-lasting scientific value as well as realistic significance for the present-day development of linguistics in China. With the general trend of world linguistics in 20th century and the history and reality of the development of linguistics in China as a background, the article analyzes the long-lasting value and realistic significance of Gao Mingkai’s academic spirit in four respects: 1) Seeking for scientificity and systematicity in a high standard; 2) Theoretic concerns in pace with the development of the world linguistics; 3) A cross-linguistic perspective; 4) A open mind for every scientific progress and the bravery for challenging any existent prestigious opinions.
字数12990
高名凯先生的治学精神和科学态度——兼谈动词形容词“名物化”问题 陆俭明 词类问题 名物化 语言共性 45
稿件标题高名凯先生的治学精神和科学态度——兼谈动词形容词“名物化”问题
英文标题Professor Gao Mingkai’s Scholar Spirit and Realistic Attitude In Studying of Chinese Linguistics: A brief Review on Nominalization of Chinese Verbs and Adjectives
作者姓名陆俭明
作者单位北京大学中国语言学研究中心/中文系
关键词词类问题 名物化 语言共性
中文摘要
高名凯先生在上个世纪50年代就呼吁:研究汉语语法,就不应仿效西洋的语法;研究汉语语法,必须依照汉语的特点,走上独立的创造的道路。高先生的呼吁应成为我们研究汉语语法的指导原则。而在50年代发生的汉语词类大讨论中,从高先生身上我们看到了一个正直的知识分子所应有的求真求实不断探索、创新的治学精神和科学态度。文章重新探讨了汉语动词、形容词所谓“名物化”的问题,以语言事实说明,动词、形容词跑到主语位置上不能看作是汉语的特点,实际是语言共性。汉语的特点不表现在动词、形容词能做主语这一点上,而是表现在大量的零派生和大量的省略上。
英文摘要
In the very early 1950s, Professor Gao Mingkai called for studying Chinese linguistics based on the distinguishing characteristic of Chinese language rather than borrowing simply and directly the grammar system from western tradition. Professor Gao’s initiation should be regarded as an important principle for guiding Chinese grammarians even in the present day. If we cast a look back at the argument over the part of speeches of Chinese that turned up about 60 years ago, we can learn a lot on scholar spirit and realistic attitude from Professor Gao. In this paper, I discuss again on nominalization of Chinese verbs and adjectives. According to more language facts we observed, we should recognize that it is common phenomenon that verbs and adjectives can function as subject both in Chinese and western languages. The difference between Chinese and western languages is that Chinese verbs and adjectives can function as subject without having inflections to indicate the changes of their function. In other word, Chinese verbs and adjectives can be used as a noun after zero-derivation.
字数6795
高名凯在中国现代语言史上的地位——从词类问题大讨论谈起 潘文国 高名凯 历史地位 现代中国语言学 理论、综合 45
稿件标题高名凯在中国现代语言史上的地位——从词类问题大讨论谈起
英文标题Gao Mingkai’s Historical Status in the Advancement of Modern Chinese Linguistics
作者姓名潘文国
作者单位华东师范大学国际文化学院
领域理论、综合
关键词高名凯 历史地位 现代中国语言学
中文摘要
高先生是中国现代语言学史上一个特别关键人物,一个无法绕过去的历史存在,是一个对今天的语言研究者来说仍有着重大启示和教育作用的杰出榜样。他是一位以学术为生命、勇于坚持真理的斗士,也是一位坚持走中国特色语言学道路的坚定不移的探索者和实践家。
英文摘要
Professor Gao Mingkai is a key figure in the advancement of modern Chinese linguistics, and must never be neglected. His dauntless fighting spirit and perseverance in exploring and keeping to the truth set a shining example for all of us.
字数7299
从理论启蒙到理论体系——学习高名凯先生《语言论》 李开 高名凯先生《语言论》 “‘语言•思维’统一体”模型 语言系统内部结构的组成方式 一般语言起源和具体语言起源 语言言语大讨论 理论、综合 45
稿件标题从理论启蒙到理论体系——学习高名凯先生《语言论》
英文标题From Enlightenment of Theory to System of Theory: To Study Mr. Gao.Mingkai’s ‘On Language’
作者姓名李开
作者单位澳门,澳门科技大学通识教育部
领域理论、综合
关键词高名凯先生《语言论》 “‘语言•思维’统一体”模型 语言系统内部结构的组成方式 一般语言起源和具体语言起源 语言言语大讨论
中文摘要
高先生《语言论》渗透着社会性的“‘语言•思维’统一体”模型的提出,实际上就是“思维和存在的关系问题”,即思维和存在同一性理论在语言学领域内的体现。提出这一模型是批判索绪尔以前种种错误语言学说,特别是批判个人主义语言观和自然主义语言观的成果;用这一模型来解决“语言本质”、“思维本质”等问题,比当代西方学者单纯从经验语言论语言,仅从语言文字论思维,更显优越,也更全面深刻。书中强调语言系统的关系的客体性,扩大语言学理论应用的范围,补正索绪尔的不足。关于语言系统内部结构的组成方式,语音、语义是语言二分,词汇、语法是音义维度下的再分。书中区分语言起源中的一般语言起源和具体语言起源,两大起源问题的内在逻辑甚明晰。文中对半个世纪前语言言语大讨论作了初步评述。除了双方都认同语言符号共同体以外,相异点也是可以互补的。
英文摘要
“‘Language •Thought’ entity” from Mr Gao’s On Language is a social model. Reality  is “the relationship between thought and being” i.e.the identity of thought and being give expression to linguistics. The model is a positive result in criticizing every erroneous linguistic theory, especially individualism-linguistics and naturalism-linguistics, which existed before Saussure’s theory. We resolve the problems of“ essence of language”, of “ essence of thought” and of others using the model, and it is more excellent and overall profound than merely using experience-language on language and using language and character on thought researched by some of modern west scholars. Mr Gao stressed the objective of the form relationship of linguistic system, expanded the scope of linguistics, supplemented and corrected some of the omissions made by Saussure, Ferdinand de. About the form of internal structure of linguistic system, pronunciation and semantic meaning are dichotomy of language, vocabulary and grammar are again dichotomy taking pronunciation and semantic meaning as its dimension. Mr Gao distinguished origin of individual language from origin of general language. In the great discussion happened half century ago about language and speech, the two parties identity the community of language symbol, yet some of the difference can be mutually complemented.
字数13700
语言符号任意性的实质——纪念高名凯先生诞辰100周年 姜望琪 高名凯 本维尼斯特 任意性 价值 关系 应用、理论 45
稿件标题语言符号任意性的实质——纪念高名凯先生诞辰100周年
英文标题The essence of the arbitrariness of linguistic signs:
作者姓名姜望琪
作者单位北京大学外国语学院
领域应用、理论
关键词高名凯 本维尼斯特 任意性 价值 关系
中文摘要
本文从高先生对索绪尔语言符号任意性的认识入手,讨论了本维尼斯特对这个概念的一些误解。语言符号的价值是由组合关系和聚合关系共同决定的,不是由其本身的任何积极因素决定的。我们认为,这是索绪尔强调符号任意性的根本原因,也是语言符号任意性的实质。
英文摘要
This paper starts with Professor Gao’s interpretation of Saussure’s concept of the arbitrariness of linguistic signs and Benveniste’s misunderstandings of the concept, then discusses the notions of linguistic value, and syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations. The value of a linguistic sign is not determined by any of its positive elements, but by the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations it is in. This, the author argues, is the essence of the principle of the arbitrariness of linguistic signs and the ultimate reason why Saussure emphasized this point.
字数11520
语言外部因素,语言演变和比较重构:中国西南个案研究 Katia Chirkova (齐卡佳) 藏缅语、汉语、藏语、羌语支、民族走廊、语言接触、社会语言学 语音、应用、理论 45
稿件标题语言外部因素,语言演变和比较重构:中国西南个案研究
英文标题Extralinguistic Factors, Language Change, and Comparative Reconstructions: Case Studies from South-West China
作者姓名Katia Chirkova (齐卡佳)
作者单位CRLAO, CNRS
领域语音、应用、理论
关键词藏缅语、汉语、藏语、羌语支、民族走廊、语言接触、社会语言学
中文摘要
语言接触的跨语言研究表明,语言接触的结果基本上依赖于语言之外的因素。这个确定性反过来意味着语言接触情况的潜在结果或许可以在一定程度上从该 接触情况的语言之外的因素推导出来。在这个意义上,源于汉藏边界的多民族与多语言的“民族走廊”的语言,由于这个区域复杂、多层次的历史,很有可 能出现语言接触的极端结果——那就是,严重的借贷与严重的结构干扰,渗透到受借语言的所有子系统中去。
本文关注在这个区域有悠久居住历史的一小部分群体所说的民族走廊的语言,这些人完全是自己母语和相应的接触语言的双语者。我研究以下两类语言在当 地的语言变体:(1)具有书面传统且研究充分的语支,如汉语和藏语;(2)研究较少且系属较为模糊的语支,如羌语支。我认为接触环境的大致的一致 性,会使我们通过研究共时及历时情况较为清楚的语言所得到的洞见,有助于研究共时及历时情况不清楚的变体的语言结构。此方法允许我们从这个区域的 语言接触中得出可证伪
的预测,并允许我们推导出关于语言演变的循环过程的可供检验的结论。
英文摘要
Cross-linguistic studies on language contact suggest that the outcomes of language contact by and large depend on extralinguistic factors. The reverse of this deterministic claim entails that the potential outcomes of a language contact situation may to some extent be inferred from the extralinguistic context of that situation. In this sense, languages native to the multi-ethnic and multi-lingual “ethnic corridor” of the Sino-Tibetan borderland are, due to the complex and layered history of this area, likely to be among most extreme outcomes of language contact—that is, heavy borrowing and heavy structural interference, penetrating into all subsystems of the recipient language.
In this paper, I focus on languages of the ethnic corridor that are spoken by small-size groups with a long history of residence in the area, who are fully bilingual in their native tongue and their respective contact language. I examine local linguistic varieties of (a) well-studied subgroups with written traditions, such as Sinitic and Tibetan; and (b) lesser-researched and phylogenetically more obscure subgroups, such as Qiangic. I argue that common sociolinguistic settings for all considered varieties should lead us to examine the linguistic structures of synchronically and historically lesser-understood varieties aided by insights gained from the study of synchronically and historically better-understood varieties that fall into the same category. This approach allows us to extract falsifiable predictions from complex cases of language contact in the area, to derive testable conclusions about recurrent local processes of language change.
字数12402
基于同音词率的藏语声调起源研究 孔江平 声调起源 藏语声调 同音词 信息量 语音、应用、理论 45 下载
稿件标题基于同音词率的藏语声调起源研究
英文标题A Study on the origin of Tibetan Tones by Homonym Rate
作者姓名孔江平
作者单位北京大学中文系,中国语言学研究中心
领域语音、应用、理论
关键词声调起源 藏语声调 同音词 信息量
中文摘要
藏语声调起源的研究是汉藏语系语言研究中一个非常重要的问题,以往的研究都是从历史语言学的角度,采用藏语方言的资料进行对比研究,并得到了一些对应关系的结论。然而,这些研究主要还是在藏语声调起源的形式上,并未接触到语言演化的本质,研究方法也有一定的缺陷。本文利用藏语大型数据库,通过计算藏语方言的同音词,从信息量的角度对藏语声调起源的本质进行了探讨和诠释,发现1)同音词的增加带来的信息量的提高是声调产生的最主要原因;2)虽然各方言音位数量不同,特别是复辅音声母,但同音词的分布是相同的;3)提出了预测声调产生的方法。
英文摘要
The study on the origin of Tibetan tones is a very important aspect in the research of Sino-Tibetan family. Up to now, most of the studies were from the viewpoint of historical linguistics and some results of corresponding relationship among initials, finals and tones were obtained through the materials of Tibetan dialects. However, these studies all concentrated on the surface form of tone production and did not touched upon the nature of tone evolution. There was also weakness in the research method. This paper is concerned with the study on the origin of Tibetan tones by homonym from a viewpoint of information load calculated through a large scale of Tibetan dialect database. The results show that 1)the main impetus of the origin of Tibetan tones is the increase of homonym which make the information load heavy; 2) although the numbers of phonemes are different in Tibetan dialects, the distributions of homonym in different dialects are the same; 3) the turning point where Tibetan tones appear can be predicted.
字数6000
试论重构原始语言的若干原则——以原始彝语的声调及前置声母*h-和*?-为例 陈保亚 汪锋 重构 对应 原始彝语 前置声母*h- 前置声母*- 语音、理论、综合 45
稿件标题试论重构原始语言的若干原则——以原始彝语的声调及前置声母*h-和*?-为例
英文标题Several Principles on Reconstructing a Proto-language--The Case of Tone, Prefix *h- and *- of Proto-Yi
作者姓名陈保亚 汪锋
作者单位北京大学中国语言学研究中心,中文系
领域语音、理论、综合
关键词重构 对应 原始彝语 前置声母*h- 前置声母*-
中文摘要
重构可以分为音类拟测和音类赋值两个方面,这两个方面都以系统的语音对应为必要条件,因此系统对应是重构的基础。对应不一定是相似,为了排除偶然对应、有效区分对应的时空层次以及对原始形式进行完全构拟,应坚持完全对应;对应模式上的差异应在原始形式上体现出来,重构应该建立在穷尽对应模式的基础上;一致对应是区分对应时空层次的必要条件,与核心语素一致的对应应该是原始形式的主要依据。根据中国境内6种彝语方言的材料,应用上述原则,我们重构出原始彝语的声调系统,并着重论述了与声调重构相关的原始彝语的前置声母*h-和*-,解释了巍山彝语先喉塞音声母的来源,以及这两个前缀在其他彝语方言中的变化模式,同时根据南华和撒尼彝语中声调的发展以及核心语素的表现确认了重构前置声母*h-和*-的理由。
英文摘要
There are two folds of reconstruction, phonological categorization and phonetic interpretation. Both of them start on the basis of systematic sound correspondences. Notably, sound correspondences do not implicate phonetic similarity. In order to rule out chance correspondence, stratify different layers of correspondences and reconstruct proto-forms completely, the requirement of complete sound correspondence should be insisted upon. Contrast of different sets of sound correspondence should be reflected in proto-forms, and the reconstruction of a proto-language should cover all sets of sound correspondence. Consistent correspondence is necessary for stratification of different layers. Sound correspondences containing kernel morphemes should be given more weights in reconstruction. These principles are applied into the reconstruction of Proto-Yi based on six Yi dialects in China. The tonal system is reconstructed, and two prefixes *h- and*- have been exemplified. These forms are used to explain the emergence of pre-glottalized initials in the Weishan Yi and how the reflexes in other dialects come into being. Meanwhile, the tonal development of the Nanhua Yi and the Shilin Yi and the behaviors of kernel morphemes confirm the reconstruction of the two prefixes.
字数25539
藏缅语的小舌音 黄布凡 藏缅语 小舌音 同源词比较 遗存 演变趋势 语音、应用 45
稿件标题藏缅语的小舌音
英文标题Uvulars in Tibeto-Burman Languages
作者姓名黄布凡
作者单位中央民族大学
领域语音、应用
关键词藏缅语 小舌音 同源词比较 遗存 演变趋势
中文摘要
本文汇集了藏缅语中羌、彝、藏3个语支30余种有小舌音的语言和方言土语,分别介绍其分布地区和小舌音的种类。通过对这些语言同源词中小舌音相互对应关系的比较研究,判断q、qh、G 3个小舌音可能古已有之,是古藏缅语的遗存,小舌擦音χ和ʁ则可能是后来发展的。纵观演变历史,藏缅语的小舌塞音在大多数语言中呈现着衰减 ——弱化——消失的趋势。
英文摘要
The manuscript summarizes about 30 languages and dialects in the 3 branches such as Qiangic, Lo-lo, and Tibetan in Tibeto-Burman languages, which contain uvulars and describes the types and the distribution of them. By comparing the associations of the uvulars in the cognates in these languages and dialects, it can be concluded that while q, qh, and G existed in ancient time, most probably already in Proto-Tibeto-Burman languages, χ and ʁ, however, might be derived in a later period of time. Following their development in the history, the use of uvulars has shown a tendency of reducing, weakening and disappearing.
字数10659
论普米语复辅音的衰变 蒋颖 普米语 复辅音 衰变 语音、应用、理论 45
稿件标题论普米语复辅音的衰变
英文标题On the Decline of Consonant Clusters in Pumi
作者姓名蒋颖
作者单位中央民族大学
领域语音、应用、理论
关键词普米语 复辅音 衰变
中文摘要
本文通过大羊普米语复辅音的共时音变分析,以及南北方言间的比较,讨论普米语复辅音日趋衰变的特点和规律。
英文摘要
The characteristics and rules of the decline of consonant clusters in Pumi are discussed through a synchronic analysis on the phonetic change and comparison between dialects of the south and the north.
字数10464
蒲西霍尔语软颚化的语音对立 林幼菁,孙天心,陈正贤 汉藏语系 羌语支 霍尔语 语音学 软腭化 语音、应用、理论 45 下载
稿件标题蒲西霍尔语软颚化的语音对立
英文标题An Acoustic Study of the Velarization Contrast in Puxi Shanzhai
作者姓名林幼菁,孙天心,陈正贤
作者单位中央研究院,中央研究院,台湾大学、中央研究院
领域语音、应用、理论
关键词汉藏语系 羌语支 霍尔语 语音学 软腭化
中文摘要
软颚化的发音原理是将舌根朝软颚一带向上隆起,做出发元音[ɯ]的动作。这个语音现象在文献上一向被划分为辅音特征,而且在世界语言中很少具对立作用。在这样的背景下,蒲西霍尔语软颚化现象可谓独树一帜,不仅具备区别语意对立的功能,而且确定不是辅音特征。本文从声学语音学、音韵学原理、以及历演化的角度,讨论分析蒲西霍尔语软颚化的语音对立。
英文摘要
Velarization, the raising of the back of the tongue toward the position for vowel [ɯ ] , has long been characterized as a secondary, non-contrastive consonantal feature. Against this background, the phenomenon of velarization in Puxi Shangzhai is quite unique since it is both distinctive and non-consonantal. The present paper examines velarization in Puxi from various perspectives, including its acoustic features, the phonetic and phonological principles that determine its distinctive and non-consonantal status, as well as its possible origins in Proto-rGyalrongic.
字数5942
木里水田话(拉热话)音系分析:音位归纳与音节盘点 Alexis Michaud (米 可),Guillaume Jacques (向柏霖) Muli Shuitian; Laze; phonemic analysis; word list; syllabic inventory 语音、应用、理论 45
稿件标题木里水田话(拉热话)音系分析:音位归纳与音节盘点
英文标题The phonology of Laze: phonemic analysis, syllabic inventory, and a short word list
作者姓名Alexis Michaud (米 可),Guillaume Jacques (向柏霖)
领域语音、应用、理论
关键词Muli Shuitian; Laze; phonemic analysis; word list; syllabic inventory
中文摘要
木里水田话(拉热话)是四川凉山州木里县的一种语言,使用人口不到一千人。本文是对拉热话音系的共时分析,附录一个1,400词左右的词汇表。通过音位分析表这个归纳工具,可以看出拉热话声母与韵母的分布特征。这些特征对拉热话、纳西语、纳语等纳语组语言的历史研究有较为重要的意义。
英文摘要
Laze is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the county of Muli, in Sichuan, by a population of less than 1,000. The article proposes a synchronic account of Laze phonology, supplemented by a list of about 1,400 words in the Appendix. A phonemic analysis is proposed, with an inventory of syllables that brings to light the synchronic distributional properties of Laze onsets and rhymes – properties that are crucial to ongoing research into the historical phonology of the subgroup of Sino-Tibetan to which Laze belongs.
字数10458
彝语诺苏话中光杆名词和名量短语的指称性 胡素华 彝语 诺苏话 指称性 光杆名词 名量短语 应用、综合 45
稿件标题彝语诺苏话中光杆名词和名量短语的指称性
英文标题The Referential Properties of Bare Nouns and Classifier Phrases in Nuosu Yi Language
作者姓名胡素华
作者单位中央民族大学
领域应用、综合
关键词彝语 诺苏话 指称性 光杆名词 名量短语
中文摘要
彝语诺苏话属北部方言,主要分布在四川及云南北部、西北部,自称“诺苏”,约有280万使用人口,是彝语中使用人数最多的方言。本文通过描写彝语光杆名词和名量结构的指称特性,揭示出彝语光杆名词的本质属性为定指和类指,彝语中典型的名量结构为不定指义,指出NP的指称义与谓语属性关系较为密切。文章还认为作为量词型的语言,彝语有个显性的类定冠词,但这个定冠词也要通过量词起作用。文章指出,在有量词的语言中,量词和指称义之间的确实有着相关性。
英文摘要
Yi language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. There are 2.8 million speakers of the northern dialect of Yi language in south-western Sichuan and northern Yunan, where people call themselves Nuosu. The paper attempts to reveal the crucial referential properties of bare nouns and classifier phrases (ClPs) in Yi language. The study shows the crucial referential properties of bare nouns are definite reading and generic reading, and the typical ClPs denote indefinite reading in Yi language. Additionally, the referentialities of NPs are closely related with the property of predicates. We argue that an overt definite determiner does exist in Yi language, which is a classifier language. The  appears after classifier phrases to turn indefinite reading into definite reading. We also argue there is relevance between classifier and referentiality through the cross linguistic observation.
字数10469
新龙木雅语中带方向前缀的判断动词 铃木博之 新龙木雅语、系词、方向前缀、示证范畴、语用学 语法、应用、理论 45
稿件标题新龙木雅语中带方向前缀的判断动词
英文标题Statement Verb with a Directional Prefix in Nyagrong-Minyag
作者姓名铃木博之
作者单位普罗旺斯大学 / 法国国家科学院 / 日本学术振兴会
领域语法、应用、理论
关键词新龙木雅语、系词、方向前缀、示证范畴、语用学
中文摘要
新龙木雅语(属羌语支嘉绒语组;分布在四川甘孜州新龙县)有一对作为系词使用的判断动词,该词能带方向前缀来表示说话人之对内容的判断。本文以蔓青话为例,对其现象与其表现的说话态度进行分析。判断动词能加的方向前缀主要有三种,如∶/nə/“下面”、/tə/“中立”、/rə/“上面”。这些方向前缀先行于判断动词时,分别表现以下几种态度∶/nə/是“以不确实的、没亲自确认过的、由情况判断的知识为基础的描述”;/tə/是“以刚刚认知的、亲自看见而获得的知识(现知)为基础的描述”;/rə/是“以本来自己具有的知识(旧知)为基础的描述”。
英文摘要
Nyagrong-Minyag (belonging to the rGyalrongic group of the Qiangic branch; spoken in Xinlong County, Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan) has a pair of the statement verb used as a copula, to which a prefix can be added in order to express an attitude for the enunciation of the speaker. This paper analyses a phenomenon in the Shod-ring (Man-chad) variety and explains the enunciation attitude. There are mainly three directional prefixes which precede the statement verb: /nə/ ‘downwards’, /tə/ ‘neutral’, and /rə/ ‘upwards’. When these prefixes precede a statement verb, they represent followings respectively: /nə/ designates “an enunciation based on the knowledge which is regarded unsure or non-attested by the speaker, or judged according to the situation”; /tə/ designates “an enunciation based on the (new) knowledge which is just recognised or directly attested by the speaker and obtained”; /rə/ designates “an enunciation based on the (old) knowledge which has already been in the speaker”.
字数10064
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