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标题 作者 关键词 领域 辑号 下载
关于主谓隐喻句的一个形式语义 周北海、毛翊 隐喻 主谓句 形式语义学 概念 概称句 现汉、应用 44
稿件标题关于主谓隐喻句的一个形式语义
英文标题A Formal Semantics for Subject-Predicate Structured Metaphorical Sentences
作者姓名周北海、毛翊
作者单位北京大学哲学系、美国 ATSEC 公司
领域现汉、应用
关键词隐喻 主谓句 形式语义学 概念 概称句
中文摘要
主谓隐喻句是隐喻句最基本的类型之一。主谓隐喻句具有本体词和喻体词出现工整、形式严格等特点,可以由此开始建立隐喻句的形式语义学。Lakoff 概念隐喻理论的基本思想是正确的,可以作为形式语义学的思想基础。主谓隐喻句的理解不是单一的,还有概称句等其他主谓句的参与,因此需要统一给出主谓句的语义。由此得到的主谓隐喻句的解释是,某一语境下 S 隐喻地是 P,当且仅当,在该语境下 S 所表达的概念的内涵包含谓项 P 表达的概念的内涵。这个语义能够解释或符合主谓隐喻句的大部分性质和特点。
英文摘要
A formal semantics is established in this paper for the subject-predicate structured metaphors. We choose this basic type of metaphors as a starting point for the study of the formal semantics for metaphors because they have easily identifiable tenor terms and vehicle terms and they share a rigorous syntactic pattern.  The proposed semantics is rooted in Lakoff and his co-authors’ theory of conceptual metaphors, on which we agree with them that metaphors are not merely rhetorical but conceptual.  Being conceptual in their nature, metaphors interact with generic sentences as well.  A uniform treatment of metaphors and generics is illustrated in the proposed semantics, which defines the interpretation of a subject-predicate structured metaphor as this: “S metaphorically is P” at a certain context if and only if the intension of the concept expressed by the subject term S contains the intension of the concept expressed by the predicate term P.
字数14410
生成词库理论的最新发展 宋作艳 生成词库理论 物性结构 人造类 语义生成机制 类型强迫 语法、理论 44
稿件标题生成词库理论的最新发展
英文标题The Latest Development of Generative Lexicon Theory
作者姓名宋作艳
作者单位北京师范大学文学院
领域语法、理论
关键词生成词库理论 物性结构 人造类 语义生成机制 类型强迫
中文摘要
本文主要介绍并评述生成词库理论的最新发展。其最新发展一方面体现在基于物性结构信息把名词分为自然类、人造类和合成类,并把这种分类扩展到了动词和形容词,构建了其语义类体系。另一方面,改进了语义生成机制,提出了纯粹类型选择、类型调节和类型强迫三种基于论元选择的生成机制。生成词库理论已经被一些语言学理论吸收,并在许多语言的研究中得到广泛应用,本文旨在推进此理论在汉语研究中的应用。
英文摘要
This paper gives an introduction and review on the latest development of Generative Lexicon Theory (GLT). One of the biggest developments within the theory in recent years has been lexical type structure. Based on the information from qualia structure, nouns are divided into three semantic types: natural types, artifactual types and complex types. According to the types of nouns, the qualia-based type structure is further extended to verbs and adjectives. Moreover, the previous semantic generative mechanism is improved and replaced by generative mechanism of argument selection, including pure selection, type accommodation and type coercion. GLT has been adopted by some linguistic theories and extensively applied in research of many languages. This paper aims to push on a further apply of GLT in Chinese research.
字数12547
扬雄《方言》折射出的秦汉方音 孙玉文 扬雄《方言》 系统对应 秦汉方音 音类 古汉、上古、语音、方言 44
稿件标题扬雄《方言》折射出的秦汉方音
英文标题Dialectal Phonology of the Qin and Han Dynasties Reflected in Yang Xiong’s Fangyan
作者姓名孙玉文
作者单位北京大学中文系
领域古汉、上古、语音、方言
关键词扬雄《方言》 系统对应 秦汉方音 音类
中文摘要
扬雄《方言》中的方言同源词绝大多数都无法证实其为系统对应关系,因此根据《方言》中的少量方言同源词不能正确推导出秦汉方言中的音位差别。本文将历史文献的考证和语言学理论有机地结合起来,尝试从三个角度探讨《方言》所反映的秦汉方音:(一)表达同一个概念,同一个方言里有两个或两个以上的说法,(二)具体方言里联绵词的“同”,(三)具体方言里联绵词的“异”。文章据此全面搜集《方言》中的相关材料,探讨秦汉方言之间的音位差别,并进一步得出一些新的结论。
英文摘要
We cannot prove that most of the dialectal cognate words in Yang Xiong’s Fangyan are systematically corresponding with each other, so the differences of phoneme in the Qin and Han Dynasties can not be correctly reduced if only according to few dialectal cognate words in the Dialect. By integrating the examination of historical texts with the linguistic theory, this paper tries to explore the dialectal Phonology of the Qin and Han Dynasties reflected in the Dialect from three points of view:(1) to express the same concept, which has two or more than two ways in one dialect;(2) “the same ”in the doublets(联绵词) of special dialects;(3) “the difference” in the doublets of special dialects. Thus, this paper collects in a wide range of related materials of the Dialectal Phonology, explores the differences of phoneme in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and further conclusions with originality are to come.
字数39841
复数标记“们”的来源 汪化云 复数标记“们”,“辈人”,合音 古汉、语法 44
稿件标题复数标记“们”的来源
英文标题The origin of the Chinese Plural Marker—“Men” (们)
作者姓名汪化云
作者单位浙江财经学院中文系
领域古汉、语法
关键词复数标记“们”,“辈人”,合音
中文摘要
汉语方言中存在着“辈”演变为m声母和复数标记“辈人”产生并合音为“们”的痕迹。文献资料则证明:“辈人”具备合音为“们”的时间条件,宋元两代“辈人”和“们”的出现与否存在共变;而早期的“们”与“辈人”的意义相同,“m声母的辈+人”合音与“们”的读音也相同。此足见“们”应该来自“辈人”的合音。“们”的字形和功能、宋元明之间“们﹥每﹥们”的反复等现象,也支持这一观点。
英文摘要
In the Chinese Dialects there are indications that “bei”(辈) evolved into the nasal initial consonant “m” and that “beiren”(辈人) as a plural marker came into being and then combined into “men”(们). Some documents prove that it takes a period of time for “beiren”(辈人) to combine into “men”(们) and the same change patten took place in Song and Yuan dynasties as “beiren”(辈人) and “men”(们) appeared or disappeared; moreover, in their early periods “beiren”(辈人) and “men”(们) meant the same. The combined sound of “beiren”(辈人) sounds the same as “men”(们). Therefore, “men”(们) must have come from the combined sound of “beiren”(辈人). This can be further proved by the written form and the function of “men”(们), and the change pattern of “men>mei>men”(们﹥每﹥们)during Song and Yuan and Ming dynasties.
字数12496
论“名+量”式双音词的形成与结构 李计伟 “名+量”式;双音词;形成;结构 古汉、语法 44
稿件标题论“名+量”式双音词的形成与结构
英文标题On the Formation and Structure of “N+CL” Disyllable Words
作者姓名李计伟
作者单位暨南大学华文学院
领域古汉、语法
关键词“名+量”式;双音词;形成;结构
中文摘要
“名+量”式双音词是提取“名+X+量”结构中的核心成分“名”和“量”而成的,它是否可数,能否受数量短语修饰,主要跟其来源结构有关。“事件”来源于“事+一+件”,可数;“船只”来源于“船+X+只”,其中的“X”一般不是“一”,“船只”表示集体概念,不可数的。“名+量”式双音词可以定性为提取式缩略构词。
英文摘要
“N+CL” disyllable words are composed of N and CL, which are the kernel of the “N+NUM+CL” structures. Some “N+CL” disyllable words are countable, some not, Countablity or not is determined by it’s original construction. “Shijian” originates from “shi+yi+jian” and hence countable. While “chuanzhi” originates from “chuan+X+zhi”, in which the value of X is not “one”, so “chuanzhi” is not countable. “N+CL” disyllable word is the abbreviation of the structure of “N+NUM+CL”, and the function of “N+CL” is to refer to  “N+NUM+CL”.
字数15335
汉语变声构词两例 张忠堂 变声构词 原始词 滋生词 古汉、上古、语音、语法 44
稿件标题汉语变声构词两例
英文标题Two Examples of Derivation by Initial-change in Old Chinese
作者姓名张忠堂
作者单位北京大学中文系
领域古汉、上古、语音、语法
关键词变声构词 原始词 滋生词
中文摘要
利用现代语言学方法整理了“畜”和“系”的变声构词。“畜”和“系”的原始词和滋生词最初使用同一个汉字记录,在上古汉语里表现为异读,后来,人们才给原始词或者滋生词另造了区别字(通常是形声字)。这些区别字的产生是形成中古谐声系列里部分例外谐声的原因。
英文摘要
Taking advantage of modern linguistic means,this paper carrys on a comprehensive and detailed exploration on derivation by initial-change of chu(畜) and ji(系).The basic form and derived form of chu(畜) and ji(系) were recorded by the same character in the beginning,and formed yidu(异读) in Old Chinese.Afterwards,people created the distinguishing characters for the basic form or derived form,normally which are xiesheng(谐声) characters.These distinguishing characters also cause some exceptions of xiesheng(谐声) series of the middle ancient times.
字数14251
高名凯先生在燕京大学(1931——1949) 梅祖麟 综合 44
稿件标题高名凯先生在燕京大学(1931——1949)
作者姓名梅祖麟
作者单位美国康奈尔大学东亚系
领域综合
字数16680
书评:汉语方言语音的演变和层次(修订本) 沈钟伟 语音、方言、理论 44
稿件标题书评:汉语方言语音的演变和层次(修订本)
作者姓名沈钟伟
作者单位美国马萨诸塞州大学
领域语音、方言、理论
字数5160
书评:赵彤《战国楚方言音系》 Haeree Park 古汉 44
稿件标题书评:赵彤《战国楚方言音系》
英文标题Notes on Zhao Tong 2006: Zhanguo Chu fangyan yinxi
作者姓名Haeree Park
作者单位Chinese language and linguistics University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures (EALL)
领域古汉
英文摘要
Assistant Professor of Chinese language and linguistics
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures (EALL)
字数6396
书评回应:能否根据楚系文献重建上古楚方言音系 赵彤 理论、综合 44
稿件标题书评回应:能否根据楚系文献重建上古楚方言音系
作者姓名赵彤
作者单位中国人民大学文学院
领域理论、综合
字数11870
从语义地图看《左传》中的“以” 潘秋平 王毓淑 以 上古汉语 语义地图 多义性 类型学 古汉、上古、语法、理论 43
稿件标题从语义地图看《左传》中的“以”
英文标题The Yi in Zuo Zhuan: A Semantic Map Approach
作者姓名潘秋平 王毓淑
领域古汉、上古、语法、理论
关键词以 上古汉语 语义地图 多义性 类型学
中文摘要
“以”是上古汉语的重要虚词。本文将以《左传》为中心,着重讨论“以”的各项功能,并试图理清一些与“以”有关的争议。虚词词典一般将“以”的各项功能大致总结为介词与连词。根据这一认识,我们仍无法看出介词与连词中的各项功能是否有联系。当今学者对“以”的功能探讨虽然不少,但终究无法断定不同的功能所体现的究竟是同音还是多义的现象。本文试图采用类型学中的一个新概念,即语义地图,为上古汉语的“以”的各项功能归类并建立一个立体架构,窥探它们之间的关联,并进而证明“以”的不同功能是个多义现象而非同音现象。
英文摘要
Yi is an important functional word in Old Chinese. This paper focuses on Zuo Zhuan as the main material and discusses the various functions of yi, while at the same time clarifies some issues involved. Dictionaries of functional words usually classify yi’s meanings into two broad categories, namely preposition and conjunction. However, given this information, we are still unable to see if there is a connection between the various functions of yi. Furthermore, research with respect to yi’s functions is still rather limited up to date. With these limited researches, we still cannot determine whether these different meanings of yi portray a homophony or a polysemy phenomenon. This paper will try to use a new concept in typology—Semantic Map Model, to solve this problem, and aim to organize the various functions of yi into a 2-dimensional structure, providing a structured framework of the links between the different functions. This will in turn provide strong evidence to prove whether yi is a homonym or a polysemous word. However, two problems have been uncovered while trying to organize the functions of yi by using Semantic Map Model: 1. We can see from the semantic map that Old Chinese’s yi does not necessarily need to have the causative function. This is a significant problem which linguists have been debating about for quite some time. 2. The continuity of “pretransitive – beneficiary – cause” has been broken as can be seen from the semantic map of yi. This is against the basic principle of Semantic Map. Thus far, nobody has mentioned that yi has the beneficiary function in Old Chinese. This triggered the discussion of whether Old Chinese has the beneficiary function. This is something which has not been discussed in the past and this paper shall begin a discussion on this topic.
字数35329
以汉语方言为本的“能性”情态语义地图 范晓蕾 情态 语义地图 汉语方言 语法、语义、方言、理论 43
稿件标题以汉语方言为本的“能性”情态语义地图
英文标题The Semantic Map of Possibility Modality Based on Chinese Dialects
作者姓名范晓蕾
作者单位香港科技大学人文学部
领域语法、语义、方言、理论
关键词情态 语义地图 汉语方言
中文摘要
能力”“许可”“可能”等意义常常由同一个情态词形式表达,情态词的各个语义功能以及某些句法表现也有跨语言/方言的平行性。如北京话的“能”、厦门话的“解”和英语的can都兼有能力、许可、认识可能等“能性”情态义。那么,这些情态概念存在怎样的语义关联呢?本文以汉语方言为主要的考察对象,运用“语义地图模型”理论和语法化理论,初步发掘“能性”范畴的情态概念(即“能力”“许可”“可能”等意义)的语义关联,并致力于找到这些情态概念与其他概念的语义关联,构建出“能性情态语义地图”。本研究的目的还在于:更清楚辨识动力、道义、认识三种情态类型,揭示语义演变的共性。
英文摘要
The meanings of possibility modality, such as ability, permission, speculation and so on, are often expressed by the same form in the world languages. For example, Néng(能) in Pekingese, [e7](会) in Xiamen Min and can in English all have the three modal meanings just mentioned above. The modal words/markers in unrelated languages show parallelism in multiple semantic functions according to previous studies. This research is devoted to establish a semantic map of possibility modality, which demonstrates the semantic connections of meanings of the possibility modality (i.e. ability, permission, and speculation) based on Chinese dialects. The map will be compared with that in Van der Auwera (1998).
字数41342
历史比较法和原始闽语构拟 王福堂 原始闽语 古音构拟 语音对应 借用的成分 历史比较法 语音、方言、理论 43
稿件标题历史比较法和原始闽语构拟
英文标题Reconstruction of Proto-Min and the Comparative Method
作者姓名王福堂
作者单位北京大学中文系,北京大学汉语语言学研究中心
领域语音、方言、理论
关键词原始闽语 古音构拟 语音对应 借用的成分 历史比较法
中文摘要
有人认为不能因为原始闽语与《切韵》音系及上古音之间对应复杂而否定原始闽语的
构拟,因为这一构拟和构拟与《切韵》及上古音的对应没有关联。不过构拟使汉语早期阶段的语音复杂化,和构拟与《切韵》及上古音的对应仍然有关。高本汉的闽方言并非由《切韵》派生一说也值得斟酌。而且历史比较法指出,构拟时需要鉴别后来的“借用的成分”,而汉语南方诸方言中这种后来的“借用的成分”极其丰富,正是需要鉴别的。
英文摘要
Some scholars argued for the reconstruction of Proto-Min though sound correspondences between the Proto-Min and the system of Qieyun and the Old Chinese are complex because the reconstruction has nothing do with the complex correspondences according to the Comparative method. However, such reconstruction will result in the complicated phonological system for the early Chinese. Therefore, it is still relevant in its correspondence with Middle Chinese and Old Chinese. Moreover, the idea proposed by Bernhard Karlgren that Proto-Min is not derived from the system of Qieyun should be reexamined. It is necessary to get rid of borrowing elements in reconstruction, and it is well-known that borrowings at later stages are quite rich in southern Chinese dialects. Therefore, it is reasonable to be aware of such risk.
字数8752
闽语中“来母S声”的来源 秋谷裕幸 闽语 来母S声 音韵史 古音构拟 上古来母 上古、语音、方言、理论 43
稿件标题闽语中“来母S声”的来源
英文标题The origin of the “*L- > S-” Change in the Min Dialects
作者姓名秋谷裕幸
作者单位日本爱媛大学
领域上古、语音、方言、理论
关键词闽语 来母S声 音韵史 古音构拟 上古来母
中文摘要
“来母S声”的来源是原始闽语*(大多数)和*(“露濑□寻找”只有三个字),均为发音部位介于[•]和[]之间的通音。这个音值也反映了比中古音更早的来母音值。
英文摘要
The “*L- > S-” change in the northwestern Min dialects is derived from Proto-Min post-alveolar approximant *(mostly) and *(only in three particular words), which reveal the phonetic value in Old Chinese. There are three factors for this change, say, (1) conservativeness of the Min dialects, (2) the liquid system (*, *, *, *) in Proto-Min, and (3) the areal feature of the distinction between [  ] and [   ] in western and northwestern Fujian.
字数12158
闽东宁德话的变韵 戴黎刚 宁德话 变韵 类型 音类 语音、方言 43
稿件标题闽东宁德话的变韵
英文标题The Final Alternations of the Ningde Dialect
作者姓名戴黎刚
作者单位浙江工商大学人文学院
领域语音、方言
关键词宁德话 变韵 类型 音类
中文摘要
本文通过闽东话内部的层次系联,重新分析宁德话的音系,论证宁德话的变韵模式,并逐一分析各个变韵的音类。宁德话变韵发生在阳平、阴去、阳去、阴入四个调类,韵腹为高元音的音类要变韵为较低的元音。除此之外,绝大多数的音类都是变韵为高一度的元音。这和福州话有显著的区别,有助于探讨闽东话变韵的成因。
英文摘要
This paper reanalyzes the phonology of the Ningde dialect via historical stratification, and verifies the pattern of final alternations. The phonological categories of final alternations have been analyzed one by one. In the Ningde dialect, if those final alternations take place when the tone is Yangping(阳平), Yinqu(阴去), Yangqu(阳去) or Yinru(阴入), the high nucleus will become lower. Otherwise, nucleus of most finals will become higher by one degree. This phenomenon is different from the Fuzhou Min, and it is helpful to investigate the cause of final alternations in the Eastern Min.
字数25583
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