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标题 作者 关键词 领域 辑号 下载
汉语趋向动词用作方向词现象初探 王琦 郭锐 趋向动词 方向词 认知解释 现汉、语法 47
稿件标题汉语趋向动词用作方向词现象初探
英文标题Directional Verbs as Directional Noun in Chinese
作者姓名王琦 郭锐
作者单位北京大学中文系
领域现汉、语法
关键词趋向动词 方向词 认知解释
中文摘要
在汉语中,趋向动词用作方向词现象具有一定的普遍性,但其相关研究却近乎空白。本文从普通话、方言、历代汉语三个角度,对趋向动词用作方向词现象在汉语中的分布与起源及其背后的语言机制进行了探讨。我们发现趋向动词用作方向词现象在普通话中的接受度、在方言中的分布与在古代汉语中的发展均遵循相似的序列,并从认知语言学的角度对其机制进行了解释。
英文摘要
In Chinese, the phenomenon of directional verbs using as directional noun is relatively common, while the corresponding research is almost vacant. This paper discusses the origin, the distribution and the linguistic mechanism of this phenomenon from Mandarin\Chinese dialects\ancient Chinese. When using as directional nouns, different directional verbs have different acceptations in Mandarin. At the same time, they have different distributions in Chinese dialects and different occurrence times in ancient Chinese. According to our research, we found that the orders in these three aspects are the same. Moreover, we explain its linguistic mechanism from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.
字数21247
“(在)X下/之下”结构的多功能考察 马 喆 方所结构 “在X下/之下” 多功能 语义演变 现汉、语法 47
稿件标题“(在)X下/之下”结构的多功能考察
英文标题A study of the zai X xia/zhi xia ‘under X’ construction
作者姓名马 喆
作者单位广州大学人文学院、暨南大学中文系
领域现汉、语法
关键词方所结构 “在X下/之下” 多功能 语义演变
中文摘要
“(在)X下/之下”包括六种具体格式,这六种格式各具不同的功能,不同功能之间的演化链条如下:方位>比较;方位>非空间背景;方位>情状;方位>受控>原因。考察发现,具体格式的功能与格式中的X或X的中心语成分(名词、动词、形容词等)的语义紧密相关。其中“在N的V下/之下”格式的空间义动词晚于其它动词出现,这似与语法化的单向性原则相违背;但从“在X下”整个方所结构的发展来看,格式的方位义早已出现,因此演化链条无需修改,仍符合语法化的单向性原则。
英文摘要
The zai X xia/zhi xia ‘under X’ construction has six forms and each of them is of distinctive function. The derivational chain among the different functions is as follows: location>comparison; location>non-spatial background; location>situation; location>controlledness/cause. It is observed that the function of a form is closely related to the semantics of X or the head of X (nouns, verbs and adjectives, etc.). It is noted that the verb with spatial meaning appears later than other verbs in zai N de V xia/zhi xia ‘under X’s N’ construction, which seems to violate the uni-directionality principle in grammaticalization. While it is observed that the spatial reading of the construction appeared at its earliest derivational stage from the derivational development of the zai X xia/zhi xia ‘under X’ construction, the evolutional chain is still subject to the uni-directionality principle in grammaticalization and no further modification is needed.
字数11139
也谈“王冕死了父亲”的历史来源 付义琴 述补结构 及物 不及物 脱落 引申 现汉、语法 47
稿件标题也谈“王冕死了父亲”的历史来源
英文标题On the Historical Sources of Wangmian si le fuqin (王冕死了父亲)
作者姓名付义琴
作者单位南京信息工程大学 语言文化学院
领域现汉、语法
关键词述补结构 及物 不及物 脱落 引申
中文摘要
本文不局限于探求“王冕死了父亲”这一单个句子的生成方式,而是对以“王冕死了父亲”为代表的“一元动词带宾句”的衍生机制进行历史上的考源。从历史来源看,“一元动词带宾句”中的非宾格动词或直接由及物动词的用法引申而来,或来源于述补结构上字的脱落,而这表面上的两个来源又具有本质上的一致性。
英文摘要
This paper focuses not only on the generation of Wangmian si le fuqin, but other similar sentences. Historically, the unaccusative verbs in this sort of sentence have two origins: one of which was direct from transitive verb, while the other of which came from omitting the previous morpheme in predicate-complement structure. The two sources are consistent in essence.
字数11564
重音对英语音节间双辅音在普通话中匹配的影响 吴君如 音节 重音 匹配 英语 普通话 语音、应用、理论 47
稿件标题重音对英语音节间双辅音在普通话中匹配的影响
英文标题Influences of Stress on the Mapping of English Hetero-Syllabic Di-Consonantal Strings to Putonghua
作者姓名吴君如
作者单位北京大学中文系
领域语音、应用、理论
关键词音节 重音 匹配 英语 普通话
中文摘要
本研究考察重音对英语音节间双辅音在普通话中匹配的影响。前人对匹配的研究研集中于音段相似性的作用及重音到声调的匹配,本研究则探索节律因素对音节划分的影响。被试听到一组音系结构为“(C)a C1 C2 a C”(C1≠ n, ŋ)的英语假词,将它们用汉字写下来。对这些汉字作音系转写,并进行三种测量作为增音、删除、叠音等现象的指标:英语“C1C2”音丛匹配而成的普通话音节数(SylC), “C1C2”在对应英语前一音节(σ1)的普通话音节上的体现(FC),“C1C2”在对应英语后一音节(σ1)的普通话音节上的体现(LC)。配对T检验显示:(1)抑扬格双音节的FC显著大于扬抑格双音节,(2)扬抑格双音节的SylC显著大于抑扬格双音节,(3)LC没有受到重音条件的显著影响。实验结果揭示了重音在普通话音系感知中的作用。“重重原则”和普通话双莫拉重音节假设可以共同解释观察到的实验效应。
英文摘要
The present study investigates the influences of stress on the mapping of English hetero-Syllabic di-consonantal strings to Putonghua. Earlier studies on mapping focused on the effect of segmental similarity or the mapping of stress to tone, while the present research studies the effects of metrics on syllabification. Subjects listened to nounce English words with phonological structure as "(C)a C1 C2 a C " (C1≠ n, ŋ) and wrote Chinese characters. Three measurements were taken from phonological transcriptions of these characters as indicators of epenthesis, deletion and gemination etc.: SylC -- the number of Putonghua syllables the English “C1C2” cluster maps to, FC -- the manifestation of “C1C2” on the Putonghua syllables corresponding to the former English syllable (σ1), and LC -- the manifestation of“C1C2” on the Putonghua syllables corresponding to the latter English syllable (σ2). Paired T-tests show that (i) FC is significantly greater for iambic di-syllables than trochaic di-syllables; (ii) trochaic di-syllables tend to faithfully reconstruct the “C1C2” string compared to iambic di-syllables, triggering epenthesis; (iii) LC is not significantly influenced by stress condition. The results revealed the effects of stress in Putonghua phonological perception. The observed effects can be predicted with a combination of " Weight-to-Stress Principle" and bimoraic heavy syllable hypothesis of Putonghua.
字数13821
团风方言中的“轻声读阴去”现象 汪化云 团风方言,轻声读阴去,分布,补偿 语音、方言 47
稿件标题团风方言中的“轻声读阴去”现象
英文标题On the Weak Tone converted into Unvoiced Falling Tone in Tan Feng Dialect
作者姓名汪化云
作者单位浙江财经学院中文系教授、硕士生导师
领域语音、方言
关键词团风方言,轻声读阴去,分布,补偿
中文摘要
团风方言中的“轻声读阴去”现象出现在阴去声以外的音节后,在名词中出现较多,其发展过程可分为“阴去与轻声、本调并存→阴去与本调并存→唯读阴去声”三个阶段。这种现象是“自主的调类的轻声”,也是一种“词调模式化”现象。其模式化为高升的阴去35调,是对该方言声调系统音高偏低的补偿。
字数7342
深圳新粤语声调格局的知觉研究 梁源 欧静桦 声调的知觉实验;调域;声调格局;深圳新粤语 语音、方言 47
稿件标题深圳新粤语声调格局的知觉研究
英文标题Tonal system in the new Cantonese community of Shenzhen: A perceptual experimental approach
作者姓名梁源 欧静桦
作者单位广东省深圳市南山区深圳大学文学院;香港理工大学
领域语音、方言
关键词声调的知觉实验;调域;声调格局;深圳新粤语
中文摘要
本文通过知觉实验来探讨深圳新粤语者对声调的判别和归类过程,以此为基础,探讨被试者心理上的声调格局。结果显示:在深圳新粤语者的知觉中,标准粤语(目标粤语)的六调类正合并为四调类,甚至最终可能只有“高(H)”、“低(L)”、“升(Rising)”三个调类;“域”概念正在消失。
英文摘要
This paper sets out to investigate the discrimination and categorization of Cantonese tones by speakers of the new Cantonese community in Shenzhen in order to illuminate the tonal system in their perception. Results show that in the perception of these speakers, the six tone categories of standard Cantonese (target language) are undergoing merging into four categories, even to the extent that only three categories “High”, “Low” and “Rising” exist if mergers continue. That is to say, “Register” as a distinguish feature in standard Cantonese, tend to be lost in the new Cantonese community at issue.
字数11261
语音的共时变异与历时演变——苏州、常熟、无锡知三、章组字读[tʂ]声母的来源 袁丹 知三章组字 舌叶音 共时变异 语音实验 社会语言学 语音、方言 47
稿件标题语音的共时变异与历时演变——苏州、常熟、无锡知三、章组字读[tʂ]声母的来源
英文标题The Synchronic Variation and Diachronic Change in the Zhi and Zhang Initial Groups in Changshu, Suzhou and Wuxi Dialects
作者姓名袁丹
作者单位复旦大学中文系语言学及应用语言学2009级博士生
领域语音、方言
关键词知三章组字 舌叶音 共时变异 语音实验 社会语言学
中文摘要
(1)静态腭位的分析显示,常熟吴语的见系细音字声母从发音部位来看是个舌叶音[tʃ-]组。(2)通过语音实验和社会语言学的分析,本文指出,常熟梅李、王市方言的知三章组字的读音呈现出年龄、地域和人际层面的变异,这种变异反映的是知三章字读[tʂ-]更早来自于舌叶音*[tʃ-]。(3)与常熟邻近的无锡、海门以及南部吴语中也有见系字和知三章系相混且读[tɕ-]或[tʃ-]的现象。赣语中这两组声母的音变呈现[tɕ(i)]→[tʃ] →[tʂ]的渐进过程,这也可以在常熟(北吴)及云和、汤溪(南吴)方言中找到。(4)早期苏州话的文献资料显示,至晚在十九世纪末期,苏州话可能还没有完成舌叶音[tʃ-]到翘舌音[tʂ-]的音值变化来看,苏州老派音知三、章组字读[tʂ-]更早也是[tʃ-]。综合来看,常熟、无锡、苏州一带知三、章组字翘舌音读法的前身是个舌叶音[tʃ-]。
英文摘要
This paper deals with the earlier reflex of the words of the Zhi知 and Zhang章 initial groups belonging to Division Ⅲ, which are mostly pronounced retroflex [tʂ] in Changshu dialects. (1) We find out the value of Jian见 initial group is laminal [tʃ] after phonetic observation. Some words with the Zhi and Zhang initial groups with Division Ⅲ have two reflexes [tʃ]、[tʂ] in Meili dialects and only one [tʃ] or [tʂ] in Wangshi in Changshu. Through to analyze the age, personal and geographical variation on the phonetic value of those words, we conclude that they undergo the diachronic change tʃ>tʂ and they have nothing to do with the difference between literal and colloquial layers. The same phenomenon also appears in the old age of Wuxi dialect likewise. (2) In light of the early document, the retroflex [tʂ] in the old age of Suzhou dialect came from earlier [tʃ].
字数15532
赣州方言子缀形容词的句管控 彭薇 子缀形容词 语法框架 管控 反作用 语法、方言 47
稿件标题赣州方言子缀形容词的句管控
英文标题The affixed Zi(子) Adjectives with Sentence control in Ganzhou Dialect
作者姓名彭薇
作者单位浙江财经学院人文学院
领域语法、方言
关键词子缀形容词 语法框架 管控 反作用
中文摘要
文章考察了赣州方言的子缀形容词,在句管控的视角下,分别讨论了子缀形容词的类型,特定的句法框架,句法机制对子缀形容词的管控,子缀形式对句法机制的反作用等几个问题。
英文摘要
There are a great many positive adjectives about degree and measurement, which can be affixed Zi(子) in Ganzhou(赣州) dialect in Jiang Xi province. According to the category of affixed Zi(子) adjectives, it just shows that the affixed Zi(子) adjectives are different from the non-affixed Zi(子) ones on the governing force of clauses. It is common that the former ones have several additional meaning which have special values. And based on the above content, the essay goes on with discussing the relationship between affixed Zi(子) adjectives and governing force of clause and so on.
字数7930
《朱子语类》中的“从”字介宾结构研究——兼论介词“从”的起源和发展 刘子瑜 朱子语类 “从”字介宾结构 句法语义特点 演变机制 古汉、语法 47
稿件标题《朱子语类》中的“从”字介宾结构研究——兼论介词“从”的起源和发展
英文标题Investigation into the Preposition-Object Structure "从"(Cong) in “Zhuzi Yulei” ——The origin and Development of Preposition "从"(Cong)
作者姓名刘子瑜
作者单位北京大学中文系 北京大学中国语言学中心
领域古汉、语法
关键词朱子语类 “从”字介宾结构 句法语义特点 演变机制
中文摘要
本文对《朱子语类》中的“从”字介宾结构进行了全面研究,并对介词“从”的起源及功能演变进行了探讨。本文认为,《朱子语类》乃至近代汉语时期中,介词“从”的功能比现代汉语丰富复杂,主要有:引介处所、时间、对象和依据,不是单一功能的介词,但《朱子》时期已有定型为引介始发处专用介词的趋势。引介处所的“VP+从+NP(+去/来)”结构带有闽方言特征。“从”在春秋时期由动词语法化成介词,具体演变是:由“跟随”义动词发展出“经由”义动词,再语法化成引介经由处、始发处及所在处等用法的介词,方向和终到处功能由介词“向”功能类推而来;时间功能由空间功能经隐喻机制推衍而来;对象、依据功能来源于起点功能。语义变化、句法变化、认知心理及功能类推是介词“从”演变发展的主要机制。
英文摘要
The paper investigates the preposition-Object structure "从"(Cong) in “Zhuzi Yulei” comprehensively, and also explores the origin and development of preposition "从"(Cong). Our conclusion is that the function of preposition "从"(Cong) in “Zhuzi Yulei” is more complex than in the modern Chinese. The result shows that preposition "从"(Cong) had four representation functions to a verb: place , time, object and manner (not only single), but had been fixed as a special preposition of starting point in “Zhuzi Yulei”. We find that the structure of representation place of “VP+从(Cong)+NP(+去/来)(Qu/Lai)”showed the feature of Min Dialect. "从"(Cong) had finished it’s grammarticalization from a verb to a preposition during the Spring and Autumn Period, and semantic change, syntactic change, cognition factor and functional analogy were the main evolution mechanism.
字数18034
近代汉语“给”的语法化演变研究 张文 给 致使义 方向义 古汉、语法 47
稿件标题近代汉语“给”的语法化演变研究
作者姓名张文
作者单位北京大学中文系
领域古汉、语法
关键词给 致使义 方向义
中文摘要
“致使”义和“方向”义作为“给”的“给予”义的内部语义要素,其作用贯穿于“给”的语法化过程中。“致使”义使“给”的“使役”义、“被动”义和“处置”义相关联。本文给出了“给”的语法化模式图。
字数16593
《荔镜记》中的被动式 贾燕子 荔镜记;被动式;“乞”字句;“着”字句;闽南方言 古汉、语法 47
稿件标题《荔镜记》中的被动式
英文标题The Passive Construction in Lijingji(荔镜记)
作者姓名贾燕子
作者单位漳州师范学院中文系,南京大学文学院
领域古汉、语法
关键词荔镜记;被动式;“乞”字句;“着”字句;闽南方言
中文摘要
从结构形式和表义特点两个方面描写了《荔镜记》中“乞”字被动句和“着”字被动句,梳理了《荔鏡記》中“乞”语法化为被动标记的过程,提出了一些判别致使句和被动句的标准,分析了明代闽方言中“着”表被动的来源,探讨了明清时期具有南北不同方言背景的文献中使用“着”字使役句与被动句的共同特点。主要参考价值有两点:一、提出元明清文献里的被动标记“乞”有不同的来源,一部分“乞”只是“喫”或“吃”的另一种写法,另一部分“乞”是从“给予”义发展来的;二、指出明代闽方言中存在“着”字被动句,“着”表被动当来源于“遭受”义动词,为研究明清时期“着”字被动句的发展演变及地域分布提供了新材料。
英文摘要
There are three main passive construction in Lijingji(荔镜记): “Qi”(乞)construction, “Zhuo”(着)construction and “Bei”(被)construction . Taking the methods of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis, we investigated the two characteristic constructions in a comprehensive way. Then according to the context of “Qi”(乞)construction and “Zhuo”(着)construction, brought forward a new opinion about the origin of “Qi”(乞) as a passive marker and corrected some incorrect conclusions which some scholars have reached flawed by the material limit. Finally contrasted the differences of passive marker of Quanzhou dialect between Ming dynasty and modern times.
字数26547
《正字通》韵类初探 熊燕 韵类系联 赣方言 官话 古汉、语音 47
稿件标题《正字通》韵类初探
英文标题A study of rhyme system of Zheng-zi-tong
作者姓名熊燕
作者单位中国人民大学文学院
领域古汉、语音
关键词韵类系联 赣方言 官话
中文摘要
本文对十七世纪字书《正字通》的4000左右常用字的反切和直音进行了系联,结合中古音系,系联出韵母43个。该音系具有效、咸山等韵摄开口二等牙喉音字与三四等合流、开口二等(牙喉音除外)与一等合流,果摄字开合不分,“私咨”“之时”独立成类、部分韵摄字有两读等特点,是十七世纪带有赣方言特点的官话音系。
英文摘要
Based on the precedent researches of initials and tones, this study sets forth a rhyme system by collecting and analyzing the finals of almost 4000 common words used in fanqie反切 and zhiyin直音 in ZhengziTong正字通. The system, consist of 43 classes of finals, has some features, such as velars of the 2nd division palatalized, the 2nd division of rhyme groups merged with their corresponding 1st division, the open 1st division of the Guo果 rhyme-group merged with the close division, and so on. It is conclude that the phonological system of this wordbook is actually based on the Nanjing Mandarin of the 17th century, though it also shows some features of the Gan dialect.
字数17287
《乡音释义》的韵母系统 朱蕾 徽州韵书抄本;《乡音释义》;韵母系统;韵母特点 古汉、语音 47
稿件标题《乡音释义》的韵母系统
英文标题The Final System of <Xiang Yin Shi Yi>
作者姓名朱蕾
作者单位安徽师范大学
领域古汉、语音
关键词徽州韵书抄本;《乡音释义》;韵母系统;韵母特点
中文摘要
徽州民间韵书抄本《乡音释义》经考证有 18个韵部,36个韵母。韵母系统具有“入声韵全部转入阴声韵,入声韵尾消失;流摄一三等同音;舌尖元音还未形成”等12条显著的特点。
英文摘要
This paper argues that there are 18 rhyme group and 35 final in < Xiang Yin Shi Yi >, and there are 12 remarkable characteristics of the final system in this rhyme dictionary of Huizhou such as  rhyme with a stop ending become rhyme with an open ending; pronunciation of the first grade of liu she is same as the third grade; and there are no shejian vowels.
字数19101
“波逃”“相宜”考源 张雁 波逃 相宜 词源 敦煌变文 近代汉语 古汉、近古、语法 47
稿件标题“波逃”“相宜”考源
英文标题On the Etymology of the words Botao and Xiangyi in Dunhuang Bianwen
作者姓名张雁
作者单位北京大学对外汉语教育学院
领域古汉、近古、语法
关键词波逃 相宜 词源 敦煌变文 近代汉语
中文摘要
本文从近代汉语词汇研究的角度讨论敦煌变文词语“波逃”“相宜”的词源。“波逃”是同义复合词,“波”与“播”同源通假,非“逋”之假借。“相宜”从表示言语内容演变为表示言语行为,可能是“相可”的同义替换形式,“相”非“商”之同音通用字。
英文摘要
This paper discuss the Etymology of the words Botao(波逃) and Xiangyi(相宜) in Dunhuang Bianwen on the perspective of the lexicology of Early Modern Chinese Language. Botao is a compound word formed by two synonymous morphemes, one of which ‘Bo’(波) is a cognate with ‘Bo’(播),but not a loan form of ‘Bu’(逋). Xiangyi is probably the substitute form of the compound word‘Xiangke’(相可), the morpheme ‘Xiang’of which is not a homophonic loan form of ‘Shang’(商).not a homophonic loan form of ‘Shang’(商).
字数7084
蒋光友著:《基诺语参考语法》(中国社会科学出版社,2010年)评介 林范彦 语法、理论 47
稿件标题蒋光友著:《基诺语参考语法》(中国社会科学出版社,2010年)评介
作者姓名林范彦
作者单位日本神户市外国语大学
领域语法、理论
字数5123
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